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Error Code:

Combing/ Ghosting

Description:

"Combing/ Ghosting" is an artifact that is often induced by converting video from one standard/ frame rate to another.  If done incorrectly, the conversion will not fully address interlaced frames.

Impact:

Combing/ Ghosting impacts the Technical Quality of the Asset. Customer experience is negatively impacted by the poor quality frame rate conversion, which may introduce visual artifacts that obscure or distract from the creatively intended image. It will be visible in normal playback as well as in pause/ frame-by-frame and is enhanced by motion on screen.  Any combing/ ghosting will carry over to any assets derived from the source asset, and will possibly be further enhanced in the downstream assets.

Severity Structure:

FYI

Combing/ ghosting occurs in archival/ stock footage.

Issue

Visible interlacing across the image causes a noticeable stutter during normal playback.  A “doubling of the image” occurs, visible in pause/ frame-by-frame (also sometimes referred to as frame blending or motion lag).  Images overlap across cuts (also sometimes referred to as image lag). 

How to Prevent:                          

Avoid using a non-native frame rate source clip in a sequence of a different frame rate.  The editing software will likely perform a substandard frame rate conversion that introduces lag.

If a standards/ frame rate conversion is required, as in the case of documentary archival or mixed-camera footage, always use professional quality standards conversion hardware/ software to minimize combing/ ghosting artifacts.

Solution:

Confirm if archival footage is best available. Replace with alternate footage not requiring a standards conversion, if possible.  Re-convert using professional quality standards conversion hardware/ software.

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