Portuguese Timed Text Style Guide
*This document covers the language specific requirements for Portuguese. Please make sure to also review the General Requirements Section for comprehensive guidelines surrounding timed text deliveries to Netflix.
- Doutor/Doutora: Dr./Dra.
- Metric system abbreviations do not allow for periods or plurals: 1 km, 6 km (never 6 kms.).
- There should be a space between the number and the abbreviation or symbol (6 km, 5 ºC, 14 %), except for noting hours - please see the number section for details.
- Ordinal numbers may be abbreviated only when followed by a noun. (Correct: Ela foi a 1ª pessoa a chegar. Incorrect: Ela foi a 1ª a chegar.)
- Presidente: Pres.
- Professor/Professora: Prof.
- Século: Séc. (Séc. XX)
- Senhor/Senhora: Sr./Sra.
- Universidade: Univ. (must be followed by the name of the university: da Califórnia. Never use alone.)
- Acronyms should be written without periods between letters: BBC, CIA, EUA, RU
- 42 characters per line
- Do not translate proper names (e.g. Peter, Suzanne), unless Netflix provides approved translations.
- Nicknames should only be translated if they convey a specific meaning.
- Use language-specific translations for historical/mythical characters (e.g. Santa Claus).
- When dealing with Spanish language character names (or names from any other Romance language) which have an equivalent in Portuguese, localize when the Spanish (or other language) spelling becomes an error in Portuguese: Raúl should be Raul, Nairobi should be Nairóbi, Valeria should be Valéria. If the name is not common in Portugal or doesn’t appear to be a misspelling, it’s okay to leave as is.
- Do not use ellipses or dashes when an ongoing sentence is split between two or more continuous subtitles.
Subtitle 1 Três anos não foi tempo suficiente
Subtitle 2 para aprender tudo.
- Use ellipses to indicate a pause or an abrupt interruption. In the case of a pause, if the sentence continues in the next subtitle, use an ellipsis at the beginning of the second subtitle.
Subtitle 1 Se eu soubesse...
Subtitle 2 ... não te teria telefonado.
Subtitle 1 - Eu ia dizer-te que...
Subtitle 2 - Não quero saber!
- Use ellipses with a space to indicate that a subtitle is starting mid-sentence.
... assinaram um acordo.
- Speaker’s title: only translate the title. Do not include the speaker’s name, company name or character name as these are redundant.
- Only translate a speaker’s title once, the first time the speaker appears.
- When ongoing dialogue is interrupted by a speaker’s title, use ellipses at the end of the sentence in the subtitle that precedes it and at the beginning of the sentence in the subtitle that follows it.
Subtitle 1 Eu trabalhei neste filme…
Subtitle 2 (FN) REALIZADOR
Subtitle 3 … só durante seis meses.
- Dialogue in TV/movie clips should only be subtitled if plot-pertinent and if the rights have been granted.
- News tickers/banners from archive clips do not require subtitles unless plot-pertinent.
- Avoid going back and forth between italicized and non-italicized subtitles when the speaker is on and off screen. If the speaker is on-camera for at least part of the scene, do not italicize. Leave italics for off-screen narrators.
- Use a hyphen followed by a space to indicate two speakers in one subtitle, with a maximum of one speaker per line.
- Boa sorte.
- Use a hyphen followed by a space to indicate the second speaker only, if the line of dialogue spoken by the first speaker carries over from the previous subtitle.
Subtitle 1 Pensa que o meu chefe teve algo a ver
Subtitle 2 com a miúda desaparecida?
- Font style: Arial as a generic placeholder for proportionalSansSerif
- Font size: relative to video resolution and ability to fit 42 characters across the screen
- Font color: White
- Forced narrative titles for on-screen text should only be included if plot-pertinent.
- When on-screen text and dialogue overlap, precedence should be given to the most plot-pertinent message. Avoid over truncating or severely reducing reading speed in order to include both dialogue and on-screen text.
- The duration of the FN subtitle should as much as possible mimic the duration of the on-screen text, except for cases where reading speed and/or surrounding dialogue takes precedence.
- Forced narratives that are redundant (e.g. identical to onscreen text or covered in the dialogue) must be deleted.
- Forced narratives for on-screen text should be in ALL CAPS, except for long passages of on screen text (e.g. prologue or epilogue), which should use sentence case to improve readability.
- Never combine a forced narrative with dialogue in the same subtitle.
- When a forced narrative interrupts dialogue, use an ellipsis at the end of the sentence in the subtitle that precedes it and at the beginning of the sentence in the subtitle that follows it.
Subtitle 1 Acho que não deveríamos…
Subtitle 2 (FN) ENTRADA PROIBIDA
Subtitle 3 … prosseguir.
- Foreign dialogue should only be translated if the viewer was meant to understand it (i.e. if it was subtitled in the original version).
- When using foreign words, always verify spelling, accents and punctuation, if applicable.
- Foreign words should be italicized, unless they have become part of regular usage (e.g. in English, the following no longer need to be italicized: bon appétit, rendezvous, doppelgänger, zeitgeist, persona non grata) and unless they are proper names (e.g. a company name).
- Italicize the following:
- Album, book, film and program titles (use quotes for song titles)
- Foreign words (unless they are part of regular usage)
- Dialogue that is heard through electronic media, such as a phone, television, or computer
- Only use italics when the speaker is not in the scene(s), not merely off screen or off camera
- Song lyrics (if rights have been granted)
- Do not use italics to indicate emphasis on specific words.
- Maximum two lines.
- From 1 to 10, numbers should be written out: um, dois, três, etc.
- Above 10, numbers should be written numerically: 11, 12, 13, etc.
- When a number begins a sentence, it should always be spelled out.
- Note that the above rules may be broken due to space limitations or reading speed concerns, as well as for consistency when listing multiple quantities, for example.
- Measurements should be converted to the metric system, unless the original unit of measurement is plot relevant.
- For numbers up to 4 digits, do not add a space to separate the thousands. (Correct: 1234. Incorrect: 1 234)
- For numbers 5 digits and up, add a space between thousands and hundreds. (Correct: 12 345. Incorrect: 12345)
- Use a space instead of a period for thousands. (Correct: 123 456. Incorrect: 456)
- Do not omit the 0 when noting fractions. (Correct: 0,123. Incorrect: ,123)
- Use a comma (,) as decimal separator.
- For time notation, use the formats below:
- Ele partirá às 4 horas.
- A reunião irá das 7 às 9 horas.
- O foguete foi lançado às 8h5min15s (Incorrect: O foguete foi lançado às 8h5'15'')
- A reunião será às 5h50.
- When indicating duration, the numbers should be spelled out:
- A reunião durou oito horas.
- A comitiva esperou três horas pelo presidente.
- Faltam dois minutos.
- Quotes should be used at the start and end of a line of applicable dialogue and not at the start of every subtitle.
Subtitle 1: “De sonhar ninguém se cansa,
porque sonhar é esquecer,
Subtitle 2: e esquecer não pesa e é um sono sem sonhos
em que estamos despertos.”
- Use double quotation marks (" ") without spaces for regular quotations.
Ele disse-me: "Volta amanhã."
- Use single quotation marks (' ') for quotes within quotes.
"O Charlie disse: 'Está tudo bem'."
- Punctuation should be included within the quotation marks if the quote is an independent clause and outside if it’s not.
Quem se lembra ainda do "nada a declarar"?
Todos garantiram: "Iremos até o fim."
"Viva Portugal!" Já ouvimos isto antes.
- Adult programs: 17 characters per second
- Children’s programs: 13 characters per second
- Do not translate words or phrases repeated more than once by the same speaker.
- If the repeated word or phrase is said twice in a row, time subtitle to the audio but translate only once.
- Only subtitle plot-pertinent songs if the rights have been granted.
- Opening and ending theme songs should only be subtitled if clearly plot-pertinent (e.g. for children’s content when the lyrics tell a story) or if instructed by Netflix. Normally, adult programs should not have the opening songs subtitled, except for SDH.
- Italicize lyrics.
- Use an uppercase letter at the beginning of each line.
- Use ellipses when a song continues in the background but is no longer subtitled to give precedence to dialogue.
- Punctuation: only question marks and exclamation marks should be used at the end of a line – no commas or periods. Commas can be used within the lyric line, if necessary.
- Album titles should be in italics.
- Song titles should be in quotes.
- Main titles: do not subtitle the on-screen main title card.
- Episode titles: do not subtitle episode titles if they do not appear on screen/are not voiced-over. If on-screen (either as part of the principal photography or burned into video) or voiced-over, please reference the KNP tool for approved translations.
- Titles of published works, existing movies and TV shows: use official or well-known translations. If none are available, leave titles in the original language.
- Dialogue must never be censored. Expletives should be rendered as faithfully as possible.
- Plot-pertinent dialogue always takes precedence over background dialogue.
- Always match the tone of the original content, while remaining relevant to the target audience (e.g. replicate tone, register, class, formality, etc. in the target language in an equivalent way).
- Deliberate misspellings and mispronunciations should not be reproduced in the translation unless plot-pertinent.
- Do not translate interjections that a Portuguese audience would understand (e.g. hey, wow, eh) when used in isolation.
- Both language styles (i.e. educated norm and colloquial style) are acceptable, as long as they are appropriate to the nature of the program. For instance, a series such as Orange Is The New Black calls for the use of colloquial style, whereas as series such as Marco Polo should be subtitled using the educated norm.
- Always follow the spelling rules and regulations outlined in the new Portuguese agreement, Acordo Ortográfico de 1990 (AO90).
- Include as much of the original content as possible.
- Do not simplify or water down the original dialogue.
- Where content has been dubbed into Portuguese, please refer to the dubbing script as the basis for the SDH file and ensure that the two match as much as reading speed and timings allow.
- Reading speed can be increased to:
- Adult programs: 20 characters per second
- Children’s programs: 17 characters per second
- Truncating the original dialogue should be limited to instances where reading speed and synchronicity to the audio are an issue.
- For TV/movie clips, all audible lines should be transcribed, if possible. If the audio interferes with dialogue, please give precedence to most plot-pertinent content.
- All same-language audible songs that do not interfere with dialogue should be titled, if the rights have been granted.
- Use song title identifiers when applicable - song titles should be in quotes:
["Forever Your Girl" playing]
- Song lyrics should be enclosed with a music note (♪) at the beginning and the end of each subtitle.
- Use brackets [ ] to enclose speaker IDs or sound effects.
- Identifiers/sound effects should be all lowercase, except for proper nouns.
- Only use speaker IDs or sound effects when they cannot be visually identified.
- When a speaker ID is required for a character who has yet to be identified by name, use [man] or [woman], or [male voice] or [female voice], so as not to provide information that is not yet present in the narrative.
- Use a generic ID to indicate and describe ambient music (e.g. rock music playing over a stereo).
- Sound effects should be plot-pertinent.
- Sound effects that interrupt dialogue should be treated as follows:
Subtitle 1: However, lately, I've been...
Subtitle 2: ...seeing a lot more of this.
- Never italicize speaker IDs or sound effects, even when the spoken information is italicized, such as in a voice-over:
Once upon a time, there was…
- In instances of foreign dialogue being spoken:
- If foreign dialogue is translated, use [in language], for example [in Spanish]
- If foreign dialogue is not meant to be understood, use [speaking language], for example [speaking Spanish]
- Always research the language being spoken – [speaking foreign language] should never be used
For all language-related issues not covered in this document, please refer to:
- Infopedia Portuguese dictionary (both with and without AO90):http://www.infopedia.pt/
- Dicionário Priberam da Língua Portuguesa: http://www.priberam.pt/DLPO/
- Technical Terminology for Europe: http://iate.europa.eu
- Portal da Língua Portuguesa – Acordo Ortográfico da Língua Portuguesa de 1990 http://www.portaldalinguaportuguesa.org/?action=acordo&version=1990
- Código de Redação Interinstitucional http://publications.europa.eu/code/pt/pt-000100.htm
- Ciberdúvidas da Língua Portuguesa http://www.ciberduvidas.com/
Revised section 4 Character Names - 4th bullet added regarding localization of names from Romance languages
Revised section 19 Special Instructions - 3rd bullet point added
Revised section 20 SDH Guidelines - 3rd bullet point added
Revised section 9 On-screen Text – section header revised for clarity
Revised section 1 Abbreviations - 2nd bullet point revised, 3rd bullet point added
Revised section 6 Documentary - 4th, 5th and 6th bullet points added
Revised section 9 Forced Narratives – 2nd and 3rd bullet points added, 5th bullet point revised
Added section 12 Line Treatment
Revised section 13 Numbers - 4th and 5th bullet points revised, 12th and 13th bullet points added
Revised section 14 Quotes - rewritten for clarity
Revised section 15 Reading Speed – words per minute removed
Revised section 16 Repetitions – 1st point revised for clarity
Revised section 17 Songs – 2nd bullet point added
Revised section 18 Titles – 1st and 2nd bullet points revised
Added section 20 SDH Guidelines