Timing to shot and audio are key aspects of the subtitling process which contribute to the ease at which subtitles are consumed by members.
Netflix expects subtitles which are neatly timed, sit comfortably within the edit of the content and which provide an effortless viewing experience. We want our members to feel like they are watching our content, not reading it.
Always exercise good judgement when timing subtitles and ensure the file is watched back in full during the origination stage to ensure timings are even and any flashy sections are corrected.
For any content not in 24 fps, these rules still apply but please apply different parameters where applicable, i.e. If you are working on 60 fps content, follow this guide and change any rules which stipulate 12 frames to 30 frames as needed.
Subtitles should be in sync with both the image and the audio
Subtitles should sit neatly within shots creating an effortless viewing experience which is easy on the eye
Avoid spoilers: always avoid revealing punchlines or major plot-points early where there is a visible reaction on screen
1: Timing to audio
Subtitles should have an in-time which is on the first frame of audio (or as close to it as possible, using the waveform as reference, unless the scenario falls into the timing to shot change rules in section 2).
The out-time can be extended up to 12 frames past the timecode at which the audio ends if reading speed requires it.
When timing a sequence of subtitles, create a run of subtitles with even gaps by bumping up the out-time of the previous subtitle to two frames before the in-time of the new subtitle where any gaps of 12 frames or fewer exist. This is sometimes known as “chaining” or “closing gaps”. This is described further below.
2: Timing to the shot change
Where dialogue starts on the shot change or within 12 frames past the shot change, please set the in-time to the first frame of the shot change.
If an out-time is within 12 frames of the last frame before the shot change, extend the out-time to the shot change, respecting the two-frame gap from the shot change.
That is to say, in-times and out-times may be brought forward or extended to be in sync with shot changes within the 12-frame parameter in order to create an even viewing experience and to allow the subtitles to fit neatly within the edit of the content.
If dialogue ends before a shot change and there is no subtitle after the shot change, you should still set the out-time to two frames before the shot change.
3: Dialogue that crosses shot changes
Subtitles may cross shot changes when the dialogue they represent also crosses the shot change.
When dialogue starts before a shot change, the in-time must be at least 12 frames before the shot change following the time to audio rules. If dialogue starts fewer than 12 frames before the shot change, the in-time should be on the shot change.
When dialogue crosses the shot change and if reading speed permits, the out-time may be adjusted to either be two frames before the shot change or at least 12 frames after it.
When dialogue does not fall within these shot change parameters, follow the time to audio guidelines as set out in section 1.
Apply good judgement.
Subtitles may not cross scene changes.
4: Gaps between subtitles
Subtitles must have a minimum of 2 frames between them. This parameter is applicable to any frame rate of content.
Any gaps between subtitles of 3-11 frames inclusive must be closed to 2 frames.
No gaps of 3-11 frames should be seen between subtitles. Gaps between subtitles should either be 2 frames or 12 frames or more.
Close gaps by extending the out-time of the previous subtitle, taking care to follow the rules about timing around shot changes and remaining in sync with the audio.
If an out-time has been extended by 12 frames beyond the end of the audio, avoid extending this further to close gaps. Instead, consider either re-segmenting or merging subtitles, or ensuring that the gap is 12 frames or more. Exercise good judgement.
Closing gaps between subtitles is sometimes known as “chaining”.
5: Borrowing time
When uneven reading speeds present themselves, merging with previous or subsequent subtitles is encouraged in order to borrow time and aid an even rhythm in the file.
Take care to ensure that any merged subtitles follow standard formatting for single speaker or dual speaker subtitles as appropriate.
You may need to re-segment and re-time subtitles and their neighbouring subtitles when employing the borrowing time strategy, following timing to shot and audio rules, and taking care to not break the guidelines about spoilers given above.
6: Forced narratives for on-screen text
Forced narratives which translate on-screen text should mimic the timing of the on-screen text and be perfectly in sync. For trailers with on-screen text and fast edits, this may mean breaking the minimum and maximum duration rules to ensure synchronicity.
To ensure synchronicity when timing in and out with on-screen text which fades in and out, aim to set the in-time and out-time halfway through the fade and watch the section back to check for sync.
If on-screen text remains on screen for the duration of a shot, you should maintain the standard rule for the out-time: fix the out-time two frames before the shot change.
These rules for timing FNs for on-screen text override advice given relating to timing to shot and audio when subtitling dialogue.
FN subtitles representing on-screen text may be brought out early where dialogue is present and takes precedence.
Article published 27th July