Netflix Audio Description Style Guide v2.0
This document contains a list of required practices when originating audio description for Netflix content. This is not intended to be nor should be used as an exhaustive guide on Audio Description, please consult your Netflix representative for any specification not covered in this document.
Make audio visual material accessible by means of concisely and objectively conveying plot-critical and/or character-integral information that would otherwise be missed by a sight-impaired viewer.
1.1 The Basics
Use best judgement and be mindful of time constraints when determining the amount of details you include and prioritize description of the most relevant and important actions in the scene. Avoid over describing, do not include visual images that are not vital to the understanding of the scene. Allow room for dialogue, sound effects, music, and intentional silence. Plot-pertinent dialogue and songs should always take priority.
1.2 Describing Facts
When describing facts, not all elements need to be included at all times. Determine what is most relevant for the story to flow without impacting the viewers’ experience. Avoid information overload when not relevant or when the same details can be discerned from dialogue/music.
- Focus the description on focal and relevant supporting characters and determine the means by which their traits manifest.
- For non-fictional characters, determine how known/unknown they are in your territory to decide which elements to describe.
- In case of time constraints or information overload, characters should be described gradually.
- Description should prioritize an individual’s appearance to address their most significant physical characteristics, such as hair, build, height and wardrobe.
- Description should include known relationships when they have been revealed.
- When plot-pertinent, include an age description such as late thirties, fifties, teenage, etc.
- Only identify race or ethnicity if relevant to the content, and when doing so, include the races of others, as well. Please consult your Netflix representative should you need support determining race or ethnicity, or the vocabulary to use.
- Ideally, characters should remain unnamed until introduced through dialogue or plot-point. However, characters can be named if they are part of pop-culture or when necessary for timing and clarification, as well as to identify characters in a large group.
- Use best judgement when determining if you should name the characters before they are introduced through dialogue.
- Do not name characters if they are purposefully supposed to remain unknown.
- When naming characters for the first time before they are introduced through dialogue, aim to include a descriptor before the name (“a bearded man, Jack”).
- Description should objectively convey facial expressions, gestures, movements, body language and reactions, especially when in opposition to the dialogue. These elements can be omitted if they completely mimic the dialogue they are accompanying.
- Elements of the visual style or film language should be included when crucial to the story and/or genre (for example, text typographical features that may convey a meaning).
- Directional movement should be included when relevant.
- Description should be as specific as possible and avoid general terms and/or brand names, unless plot pertinent.
- Exception: if unable to confirm, do not guess and use the general term. (If you are unable to confirm what a chef is chopping, it’s better to say he/she chops herbs than to say he/she chops parsley - please consult your Netflix representative.)
- Colors should be referenced when relevant to the scene.
- Description should include location, time, and weather conditions when relevant to the scene or plot.
- When choosing the level of detail to provide, determine if a setting has a symbolic function (for example if it helps reconstruct the traits of a character) and if it carries more plot-relevant information compared to other elements.
- It is best to provide description for visual action in reference to the viewer’s body. (“the mouse ran behind a tree to the right of the house”).
- When creating Audio Description for a language other than the original language, determine how known/unknown the setting is to the audience in your territory and describe accordingly (naming vs explicitation).
- Description should be informative and conversational, in present tense and third-person omniscient.
- The vocabulary should reflect the predominant language of the program (American English vs British English; Castilian Spanish vs Mexican Spanish) and should be consistent with the genre and tone of the content, while also mindful of the target audience.
- Common terms should be used in lieu of full description (plíe vs. bending at the knee).
- Pronouns should only be used when it is clear to whom they refer. Please consult your Netflix representative should you need clarification on the pronouns to use.
- When noting shapes and sizes, comparisons to familiar objects is recommended.
- Over dialogue should be utilized when and where appropriate, for example where the plot cannot unfold properly without a description being added. In these scenarios, it is acceptable to describe over applause, laughter, repetitive dialogue or music. Do not describe over main dialogue.
- Treat lyrics like dialogue, and only describe over them when necessary. In the case of having to describe over lyrics, allow for the song to establish itself. When lyrics are not meaningful and visuals are more important, describe what is happening.
- Only interrupt music, sound effects, and intentional silence for vital, timely information that must be described.
Avoid Censorship: do not censor any information. Description should be objective and straightforward when addressing nudity, sexual acts, and violence. Please consult your Netflix representative should you need help determining the target audience and rating of a specific title.
1.4 Description Consistency
The word choice, character’s qualities, and visual elements should remain consistent within the description for the entirety of the content and across episodes/seasons. A glossary should be created listing common descriptors.
2.0 Describing On-screen Elements
2.1 On-screen Text
Determine if the information is already being provided by other elements, such as dialogue, before adding to the description. Text may be rendered synchronously or asynchronously, literal or paraphrased.
Different techniques can be used to introduce text; i.e. explanation (“words appear”), change in the tone of voice in order to create a distinction between reading text and the actual description or different voice/s. Consult your Netflix representative before casting additional voices.
Legal Disclaimers should be read as-is.
2.2 Subtitles for Foreign Language and Difficult-to-understand Dialogue
The same techniques used for on-screen text should be used to introduce subtitles (explanation, change in tone, multiple voices). The description should read the subtitles verbatim. The original dialogue audio should be dipped in order to avoid confusion, but still allow the viewer to hear the original dialogue in the background. State “subtitles” when necessary to avoid confusion (for example, the first time they appear on-screen and reintroduce if considerable time has passed before they appear again.)
Subtitles for difficult-to-understand dialogue should be included in the description only when the audio is unintelligible. Avoid describing over lines that can be understood from the original version.
For heavily subtitled content, multiple voices may be needed to help differentiate the speakers. Consult your Netflix representative before casting additional voices.
If time allows, description should be provided for any on-screen logos to include any studio or company names and the detail of the image. Be consistent with logo descriptions.
If present, the Netflix Ident should be described per Netflix Original Credits document.
2.4 Titles and Credits
The description should include any opening and closing credits with an adjusted tone when not too distracting, but if these interfere with simultaneous dialogue and action, timing adjustments may be made to introduce the text before or after actual credit appearance. Credits will be included as time permits. Prioritize credits in order of appearance. Aim to have the following credits described during opening and/or closing credits.
- Creator, Writer, Director, Main Cast, Producer, Executive Producer, Director of Photography, Music & Sound by
If unable to cover all credits and if time allows, state that edits have been made with a line such as “other credits follow.”
When creating Audio Description for a language other than the original language (i.e. AD that is mixed with a dub) and if time allows, please read credits that will appear in dub card after credits listed above or in place of Main Cast in original crawl.
Introduce the title of the content by stating “title” and the name.
3.1 Technical Requirements
A rate of 160 wpm (words per minute) is an acceptable pace. The description
should flow casually and allow silence and pauses as necessary.
The description should be mixed to sound as though it was part of the original content. For 5.1, description should be mixed to the center channel. For further information about the mix, please consult our technical specs.
The accent of the voice actor should reflect the predominant accent in the program (American English vs British English; Castilian Spanish vs Mexican Spanish).
3.3 Vocal Approach
- The delivery of the description should match the volume, pace, tone and rhythm of the content.
- Voice - The narrator’s voice must be distinguishable from other voices and tones from the content, but they should not be distracting or animated in such a way as to disrupt the objectivity of the narration by becoming the voice of a performer. For selected titles, your Netflix representative may request a specific delivery depending on the type of content (for example, more empathetic for an emotional fiction tile).
- Enunciation - Speak clearly and at a rate that can be understood.
3.4 Describer Consistency
The same voice talent should be used across all episodes and seasons of a series, as well as movie sequels when possible. Consult your Netflix representative if unable to secure the same voice talent.
3.5 Audio Description Credits
Include AD post-house name, script writer and voice talent credits within the AD track, after the last frame of picture and before the end credit crawl. In case of time constraints, consult your Netflix representative to determine where to better place the credits.
Determine the genre, visual style and spatio temporal setting the content belongs to as well as its audience. Prefer words and expressions from the same semantic field.
4.1 Children’s Content
Tone and vocabulary should match the age range of the target audience and a more intimate style may be appropriate. For educational materials, or situations in which the viewer is asked to follow specific actions of a character on-screen, description should be clarified in order that the sight-impaired audience identifies that the audience is being addressed, rather than an on-screen character.
4.2 Horror/Suspense Content
Description should account for intentional pauses, dramatic silences and the musical score in order to allow the sight-impaired audience to experience the same build-up of suspense intended by the production.
5.0 Plot Device
While jargon and technical terms should not be used, film terminology that has entered the common vocabulary can be used when necessary for timing and clarification, or when in line with the story and/or genre (for example, “now in close-up”).
It is preferable to describe synchronously with the image, especially with regard to comic situations. However, description may adjust timings in order to introduce plot elements early, when there is no other way to sensibly inform the audience to the content.
5.2 Camera Angles & Shot Changes
When shot changes are critical to the understanding of the scene, indicate them by describing where the action is or where characters are present in the new shot. Camera angles or point-of-view should only be included in the description when plot-appropriate (“from above” & “bird’s eye view”).
As time allows, describe montages of images or series’ of still images. When the images are relevant but time is restricted, highlight only the most significant images.
5.4 Passage of Time
Always address time shifts in relation to the character(s). When describing certain passages of time, such as flashbacks or dream sequences, describe the visual cues that indicate such, and be consistent throughout the program.
2019-06-14 (Version 2.0)
- Revised and added information related to:
- Objective and Goal
- Fundamentals (The Basics, Describing Facts, Censorship, Description Consistency)
- Describing On-Screen Elements (On-screen Text, Subtitle for Foreign Language and Difficult-to-understand Dialogue, Logos, Titles and Credits)
- Voicing (Accent, Vocal Approach, Describer Consistency, Audio Describer Consistency)
- Genres (Children's Content)
- Plot Devices (Foreshadowing, Camera Angles & Shot Changes)